In order to maintain and repair all kinds of engine-room equipment, especially machinery that operates at high pressures and speeds, the careful and skillful use of measuring tools is essential. The measurement of cylinders, piston rings and piston-ring grooves, the checking of bearing clearances, the alignment of shafts and couplings, and the determination of sizes in the machine shop, are only a few of the instances where careful measurement is needed in engine-room practice.Black desert mobile fishing guide
If engine-room personnel were unable to measure the various parts of an engine accurately and therefore could not determine whether changes were needed or how to make such changes to other accurate measurements, it is to be expected that the engine would run very inefficiently, if at all. The various units of measurement are taken up in the mathematics lessons, and the student should be thoroughly familiar and able to work with such units.
He should also be proficient in the operations of arithmetic, the changing of fractions to decimals, or vice versa, etc. Even though accurate measurements are taken, they will not be of much help unless the workman can use them correctly. Steel Rule. This measuring instrument enables work to be laid out accurately, holes located correctly, and distances and sizes measured with precision, and is therefore one of the most important tools in the engine room.
It is made from spring steel with a high degree of accuracy in both over-all length and graduations, a 6-inch rule being the most common size, although the inch rule is also used, and there are other standard lengths, up to 48 inches. One side of a steel rule is ordinarily graduated in 8ths and 16ths and the other side graduated in 32nds and 64ths, as shown in Fig. When measuring with the steel rule, the methods shown in Fig. Wear and tear are hard on the ends of the rule and it is difficult to measure accurately when starting at that point.
Always remember to subtract the correct amount, however. The width of the rectangular piece in Fig. A steel rule must always be handled carefully. Guard against rough usage that may cause nicks or scratches, as these reduce accuracy. The rule should be stored in a leather sheath when not in use and the leather oiled slightly to prevent rusting and discoloration which would make the graduations difficult to read.
Some other rules that may be found aboard ship are shown in Fig. These are used for making measurements beyond the capacity of the machinist's rule, or for measuring curved objects, as can be done conveniently with the steel tape or the flexible steel rule. A depth ruleFig.To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. The main structure of a ship is hull. It is the body of the ship; excluding fittings. The keel is the backbone of the hull. It runs from the front to the rear on the bottom of the vessel.
The hull is divided into three areas: fore end, after end and amidships. The fore end is bow, the after end is stern. The right side of ship is called the starboard and the other side is port.
The beam of the ship is the distance between the two sides. The frames, bulkheads, floors and beams complete the skeleton of hull. The frames which are ribs of the ship are covered by plating. Bulkheads are the vertical partitions separating compartments or spaces on a ship.
Marine Diesel Engine – Parts And Functions
Deck equipment includes: cargo handling, steering, anchoring and mooring arrangements. The cargo is loaded or unloaded through hatches by cranes or by derricks. The derricks are fitted to the masts on deck and are operated by winches. The mast is used to carry antennas; whistle; navigational lights; flags etc. The mast holds the sails up on a sailing vessel. Mast Crane is a machine for hoisting and lowering heavy objects.
Anchor Anchor Chain is the chain that connects the anchor to the ship. It is also known as anchor cable Anchor Chain The anchoring arrangement is the windlass used for lowering and raising the anchor an anchor chain.
The mooring arrangement consists of a winch, bitts, capstans and fairleads. Mooring is to secure a vessel in position at a quay to buoy or buoys. Capstan is a vertical revolving cylinder, placed on the forecastle used for heaving the cables and mooring ropes. They are carried in davits and are used for life-saving purposes.Machinery systems differ from one ship to the next.
Read them and keep them nearby. The manual holds the key to all the maintenance schedules, as well as troubleshooting tips. Maintain and learn from the records. Keeping good repair records will tell the story of your engine and help the engineer schedule routine maintenance and anticipate frequent repairs. Get the details on significant repairs. Reports on past repairs will also let the engineer know what problems have presented themselves frequently and how the engine room behaves in specific conditions.
Track the running hours. Maintaining and monitoring running hours goes beyond simply keeping the machine running smoothly. Some systems could shut down completely without proper maintenance. Be aware of different types of clearances. Different technical specs of the engine like bearing and bumping clearances in compressor areas play a key role in maintenance systems. Knowing this data will help the engineer plan out and schedule regular maintenance.
Alterations will change adjoining parts. Anytime a major repair is done on the crank shaft through grinding, the size and fit of the adjoining parts will also be altered.
Double check the repair records to make sure you buy the correct parts for the job. Stock the required spare parts.
Once you understand what repairs need to be done most often, stocking the necessary parts becomes clear and will save you from getting a major headache at sea. What needs to be tested? Important engine room machinery generally has a test built in to gauge how efficiently everything is running.
Did we mention the log book of repairs and maintenance?A Marine diesel engine consists of many working parts. Even different components make few modification in its design but their function remains the same.
Each component has a definite function and location in its working. Chances are, you already know something about them even more for few; you already be used to reassembling them in a definite order.
A bedplate is made of two parallel girders running across the length of the engine. It is positioned on the either side of the trust collar between the crank throw. A bearing support made of cast steel are embedded on these transverse girders. Proper consideration is given towards the design and construction of aft-most transverse girders to maintain appropriate stiffness. This is the part subjected to variable engine thrust.
Generally bedplate are constructed by welding cast steel transverse girders in between fabricated longitudinal girders along with bearings and tie bolt holes.
But for small engines they are also made as a simple cast of cast iron. It works as a foundation block for the two stroke marine diesel engine.
They are right at the same time strong and flexible to support weight and handle fluctuating forces produced by the engine. Material such as silicon 0.
A crankshaft is a key component of an engine transmitting cylinder power to the propeller shaft. A camshaft consists of set of cams for each unit fitted on to the camshaft hydraulically.
The whole shaft is supported by white metal line bearing with set of cams fitted made of steel. They have a separate set of lubrication to avoid any contamination with the fuel due to leakage. A two stroke marine diesel engine have fewer cam on the camshaft than of four stroke engine due to the fact that; there is no inlet valve in two stroke engine which require cam movement for scavenging. To ensure the correct timing for exhaust and fuel injection; a camshaft is driven by crankshaft.
They are connected together either by a chain or gear based on the engine design or so called company. It is a control device which operates the three main valves Inlet, Exhaust and Fuel injector. It operates these valves with the help of cam follower, rocker arm and push rod.
Each cam profile is designed to produce desired speed and lift of the follower at appropriate time. They carry crosshead guides while supporting the cylinder block. And are secured to the bedplate using bolts. A piston is a composite structure with crown and skirt that made the moving part of a combustion chamber. Piston Crown are subjected to fluctuating thermal and mechanical stresses while it transfer the combustion force to the piston rod or connecting rod depending upon type of engine 2 Stroke or 4 Stroke.
They are designed as a concave structure at the top to provide maximum combustion efficiency. It is a general practice to use chromium — molybdenum alloy steel in its construction with a 8mm thick Inconel metal fitted on top of it to avoid burning of crown.Thorlabs camera
It have four to five chromium plated grooves to accompany the piston rings. On other hand the skirt act as a guide for the piston to move along the cylinder liner. They are subjected to much lower temperature and pressure and so face low thermal and mechanical stresses. A brass bands are fitted on to the skirt for better movement along the cylinder liner.
The function of a piston in marine diesel engine is to convert the force of expanding gases during combustion process to mechanical energy.
While during the compression stroke it compresses the gas in between the crown and cylinder head with the energy provided by flywheel. A piston can be called as the heart of an engine as it transform all that energy under fluctuating thermal and mechanical stress.
A piston ring have following general characteristics such as strength, resistance to wear and corrosion, elasticity and ability to transfer heat radially. They are made up of alloy cast iron with added minerals like molybdenum, chromium, titanium and nickel; Sometimes copper and vanadium are also added in their construction.Machine Screws.
The types of machine screws that are ordinarily encountered are shown in Fig. Most of these screws are made of steel or brass, some being plated to resist corrosion. They are also made of stainless steel. Occasionally machine screws with specially shaped heads, as shown in Fig. Most of these screws require special tools for driving and removing. In some cases the tools are included in a kit that comes with the machine on which the screws are used.
Machine screws are driven and removed with a screwdriver or wrench, depending on the type of screw head. Hexagon, or hex, heads are turned with socket wrenches; slotted heads are turned with plain screwdrivers; socket heads require an Allen-type wrench; and Phillips heads require special Phillips screwdrivers.Potato osmosis lab worksheet answers
Holes for fillister-head screws must be counterbored so that the head of the screw is flush with or below the surface. Cap Screws. They are generally used without nuts and are screwed into tapped holes.About him season 4
Their sizes range up to 1 inch in diameter and 6 inches in length. Cap screws may have square, hex, flat, button, or fillister heads, as illustrated in Fig. Hex heads are usually used where the metal parts do not move. The strongest cap screws are made of alloy steel. Cap screws made of stainless steel are often specified on machinery exposed to salt water, which would soon corrode and "freeze" the threads of ordinary steel screws. Some cap screws have small holes through their heads.
A length of wire, called a safety wireis passed through the holes in all of the screws in a group and is fastened at the ends, thus preventing the cap screws from coming loose. Sheet-Metal Screws.
They are especially useful aboard ship when applying sheet-metal covering over insulation. Type A has a sharp point and resembles a wood screw, except that the threads extend to the head of the screw.
Type Z screws have blunt points and may be used with heavier material. A special "self-tapping" sheet-metal screw has a tap end that cuts threads as the screw is inserted.
Holes for sheet-metal screws should be drilled or punched to about the same diameter as the core of the screw used. The screws are available in a variety of head shapes, as shown in the illustration.What secrets do ship engines hold?
These modern ship engines vary in design and use but they all provide the brute force necessary to move monster ships through monster waves. When cost of fuel is less important than power and available space the gas turbine has no equal. Powering naval ships worldwide gas turbine engines let you feel the acceleration of a boat while conning a ship. But naval applications are not alone in the use of gas. We choose the LM for the sheer number of these units installed aboard ships, well over one thousand at last count.
The LM marine gas turbine is a simple-cycle, two-shaft, high performance engine. Easy to install and maintain, the LM features the following: a simple modular design, marine corrosion-resistant materials and minimum size, weight and space requirements per horsepower produced. The LM delivers high thermal efficiency and low fuel and airflow per horsepower produced. While ships are already incredibly efficient compared to all other modes of transportation the merchant fleet still has yearly carbon dioxide emissions equal to the emissions of million to million cars.
Of course they carry more cargo than trucks and cars but there is room for significant improvements in emission reduction. They tell us:. General Atomics is developing Electric Ship technologies in support of Integrated Power Systems for a range of ship class applications. These technologies utilize advanced power conversion technology to convert and distribute shipboard electrical power with improved reliability, survivability, and power quality.
GA will evaluate new architectures for distributing power and will develop the enabling high-voltage power electronics systems required to meet the electrical power demands of modern warships and merchant vessels.Joseph prince sermons 2019
The reason is speed vs cost. Operating a large diesel engine requires less fuel and larger amounts of horespower for long ocean transits. But what if you want the economy of a marine diesel for extended voyages but need the speed of gas turbines when operating close to land?
This is the problem faced by designers of the Queen Mary II. Their decision? Wikipedia tells us :. Queen Mary 2 carries 8 spare blades on the foredeck, immediately forward of the bridge screen.
With Megawatts of power, advance control systems and a myriad of parts the largest and unamed! Siemens tells us:. R esidents of the town of Irsching in Bavaria, came out in droves this year to witness the traditional raising of their white and blue maypole. This odyssey was undertaken because the only way to truly test such a large and powerful turbine is to put it into operation at a power plant. Read More. The Wartsila-Sulzer RTAC turbocharged two-stroke diesel ship engine is the most powerful and most efficient prime-mover in the world today.
It is available in 6 through 14 cylinder versions, all are inline engines. These engines were designed primarily for very large container ships. Since the largest engines are direct drive this solution would not work for ships like the Deep Ocean Ascension wich is outfitter with Six Rolls-Royce 5. Impressive indeed! Wartsila tells us :. This popular engine, which is efficient, has low emissions, and is able to run on various liquid fuels, has stayed at the top of the industry thanks to long-term product development.
The engine still attracts new customers worldwide both in the marine and energy industries. Moreover, most of the engines built 30 years ago are still in use.
Looking to add a free gCaptain shirt to your wardrobe? Identify the following ship engine photo in the comments section and you may qualify to win.On a shipthe engine room or ER is the propulsion machinery spaces of the vessel.
To increase a vessel's safety and chances of surviving damage, the machinery necessary for operations may be segregated into various spaces. The engine room is generally the largest physical compartment of the machinery space.
It houses the vessel's prime mover, usually some variations of a heat engine - diesel enginegas or steam turbineor some combination of these such as CODAG ; see Marine propulsion. On some ships, the machinery space may comprise more than one engine room, such as forward and aft, or port or starboard engine rooms, or may be simply numbered. On a large percentage of vessels ships and boats, the engine room is located near the bottom, and at the rear or aft end of the vessel, and usually comprises few compartments.
This design maximizes the cargo carrying capacity of the vessel and situates the prime mover close to the propeller, minimizing equipment cost and problems posed from long shaft lines.
The engine room on some ships may be situated mid-ship, especially on vessels built from to the s. With the increased use of diesel electric propulsion packages, the engine room s may be located well forward, low or high on the vessel, depending on the vessel use.
The engine room of a motor vessel typically contains several engines for different purposes. Main, or propulsion engines are used to turn the ship's propeller and move the ship through the water. They typically burn diesel oil or heavy fuel oiland may be able to switch between the two.
There are many propulsion arrangements for motor vessels, some including multiple engines, propellers, and gearboxes. Smaller, but still large engines drive electrical generators that provide power for the ship's electrical systems. Large ships typically have three or more synchronized generators to ensure smooth operation. The combined output of a ship's generators is well above the actual power requirement to accommodate maintenance or the loss of one generator. On a steamship, power for both electricity and propulsion is provided by one or more large boilers giving rise to the alternate name boiler room.
High pressure steam from the boiler is used to drive reciprocating engines or turbines for propulsion, and also turbo generators for electricity. Besides propulsion and auxiliary engines, a typical engine room contains many smaller engines, including generatorsair compressors, feed pumps, and fuel pumps.
Today, these machines are usually powered by small diesel engines or electric motors, but may also use low-pressure steam. The engine s get required cooling from liquid-to-liquid heat exchangers connected to fresh seawater or divertible to recirculate through tanks of seawater in the engine room. Both supplies draw heat from the engines via the coolant and oil lines.
Heat exchangers are plumbed in so that oil is represented by a yellow mark on the flange of the pipes, and relies on paper type gaskets to seal the mating faces of the pipes. Sea water, or brine, is represented by a green mark on the flanges and internal coolant is represented by blue marks on the flanges.Automobile Engine components/Engine parts/ Basic components of IC engine/Auto mobile/Automobile
In addition to this array of equipment is the ship's thruster system on modern vessels fitted with this equipmenttypically operated by electric motors controlled from the bridge. These thrusters are laterally mounted propellers that can suck or blow water from port to starboard i. They are normally used only in maneuvering, e.
Thrusters, like main propellers, are reversible by hydraulic operation. Small embedded hydraulic motors rotate the blades up to degrees to reverse the direction of the thrust.Og psn names not taken 2018
Engine rooms are hot, noisy, sometimes dirty, and potentially dangerous. The presence of flammable fuelhigh voltage HV electrical equipment and internal combustion engines ICE means that a serious fire hazard exists in the engine room, which is monitored continuously by the ship's engine department and various monitoring systems.
If equipped with internal combustion or turbine engines, engine rooms employ some means of providing air for the operation of the engines and associated ventilation. If individuals are normally present in these rooms, additional ventilation should be available to keep engine room temperatures to acceptable limits. If personnel are not normally in the engine space, as in many pleasure boats, the ventilation need only be sufficient to supply the engines with intake air.
This would require an unrestricted hull opening of the same size as the intake area of the engine itself, assuming the hull opening is in the engine room itself. The requirement for general ventilation and the requirement for sufficient combustion air are quite different. A typical arrangement might be to make the opening large enough to provide intake air plus Cubic Feet per Minute CFM for additional ventilation. Engines pull sufficient air into the engine room for their own operation.
However, additional airflow for ventilation usually requires intake and exhaust blowers.
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